AskDefine | Define redan

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

From redan, corruption of redent, from re- + dent.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) /ɹɪˈdan/

Noun

  1. A defensive fortification work in the shape of a V.

French

Noun

fr-noun m

Swedish

Pronunciation

Adverb

redan
  1. already; prior to some specified time

Extensive Definition

Redan (a French word for "projection", "salient") is a term related to fortifications. It is a work in a V-shaped salient angle toward an expected attack. It can be made from earthworks or other material.
The Russians used redans on their left at the Battle of Borodino against Napoleon. Small redan whose faces make an obtuse angle with a vertex towards enemy is called flèche, an arrow in French. The Bagration flèches were three redans backwards in echelon. The Shevardino Redoubt (another redan) was erected as an early warning post a mile in front of the Bagration flèches.

The "redan hole" in golf

A redan hole or redan is an aspect of golf course architecture commonly associated with golf architect Charles B. Macdonald. The term alludes to the "redan" type of fortification. Specifically, a redan hole should have a green where the front angle is a "V" shape and which slopes downward and away from the point of the "V", and consequently from the golfer playing to the green from the tee or fairway.
Most if not all redan holes are flanked by a pair of deep bunkers, deep enough to be obscured from the green, and slope either to the left or the right. The original "redan" is the 15th hole on the West Links in North Berwick, a fearsome 192-yard par 3 which requires an accurate tee shot to an elevated, sloping green invisible from the tee. Golf architects around the world have created holes based on this signature challenge of the famous Scottish course.
The name 'Redan' in golf comes from the Crimean War, when the British captured a Russian-held fort, or redan. A serving officer—John White-Melville—is credited on his return as describing the 6th (now the 15th - Ed.) like the formidable fortress, or redan, he had encountered at Sebastopol">SevastopolSebastopol. Conquered only after nearly a year of attrition, which left over 20,000 British soldiers dead and four times as many French. The word 'Redan' is now part of the English language, and the definition given by the Oxford Dictionary is 'Fort—A work having two faces forming a salient towards the enemy.| West Links - North Berwick

Place names

At the time of Crimean War the several public houses in Britain adopted the name. The Redan Inn (now The Quarterdeck) in North Berwick shared its name with the famous hole on the golf course, while there is also a Redan Inn in Chilcompton, Somerset. There is a street in London called Redan Street.
The census-designated place of Redan, Georgia was most likely named for the redans built in the area during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War.
redan in French: Redent
redan in Dutch: Redan (vestingwerk)
redan in Polish: Redan
redan in Russian: Редан
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